Radio Systems of Soviet/Russian manned spacecraft

Sven Grahn



Vostok

The list below is a compilation of frequency information from various sources.

9.019 MHz (AM voice?, Vostok 1)
10.003 MHz Recovery beacon transmitter P-37. Antenna deployes after opening of parachutre. "Peleng" in table below.
15.765 (AM voice?, Vostok 2)
19.948 MHz "Signal" simple biomedical telemetry beacon (Vostok 5)
19.990 MHz "Signal" simple biomedical telemetry beacon (Vostok 4)
19.995 MHz "Signal" simple biomedical telemetry beacon
20.006 MHz AM voice
66,71,76 MHz "Tral-P1" telemetry system
83 MHz "Seliger-Tral-D" TV system. Developed by OKB MEI, A F Bogomolov
183 MHz Unknown purpose and characteristics
143.625 MHz "Zarya" FM voice system
2790-2820 MHz "Binokl" radar transponder

Where are the antennas for these frequencies located?

The sketch below is of Soviet origin and has been in my files for more than ten years. I do not know where it comes from, but the translated caption is reproduced to the right of the picture.
 
  1. Transmission of operational telemetry from onboard the spacecraft ("Signal")
  2. Reception of terrestrial broadcasting stations
  3. Transmission of telemetry and television images from onboard the spacecraft
  4. Measurement of the orbit of the spacecraft
  5. Two-way telephony and telegraphy shortwave communications
  6. Command reception
  7. Two-way VHF telephony
  8. Transmission of operational telemetry and telegraphy information during the landing phase ("Signal")
Here is a brief interpretation of this figure and table:

  1. This is the keyed-CW signal on 19.995 MHz.
  2. Remember, there was a car-radio dial in the Vostok cabin.
  3. These are the four "fat" antennas at the back of the service module. Each of these antennas are about a meter long, which, if a quarter-wavelenth, indicates 4 meters or about 75 MHz frequency. The antennas are "fat" giving them broadband characteristics. In this way they could cover the 83 MHz TV frequency and possibly other frequencies. It is possible that the TV transmitter also carried telemetry, but I think that there were separate telemetry transmitters, probably in the 61-76 MHz band.
  4. This is the "Binokl" radar transponder system working on 2700-2800 MHz. I think that the "Binokl" antennas are the little white discs and that the "Irtysh" inteferometer antennas are the little loop straddling the white disc. The "Irtysh" system is supposed to work in the decimeter-wave band. Let me guess that the frequency is around 1 GHz.
  5. This is the 20.006 MHz AM voice (and 9.019, 15.765 MHz) link.
  6. This are the "trombone" antennas on top of the re-entry vehicle. The frequency is low, probably below 100 MHz.
  7. This is the little VHF dipole on top of the re.entry vehicle. It is for 143.625 MHz.
  8. This is the 19.995 MHz simple keyed-CW telemetry. These antennas are monuted directly on the re-enrty vehicle and not on the straps hold the re-entry vehicle to the service module. In this way, the would work all the way until the re-entry heat burned them away. But, was the cosmonaut competetly out of voice contat once the service module had been released?

Specific radio systems in early Soviet satellites:

Spacecraft
Radar
Interferometer
Telemetry
TV
Voice
Orbital 
beacon
Recovery 
beacon
Sputnik 1
"Binokl" in R-71
- - - - - -
Sputnik 2
"Binokl" in R-71
- "Tral-D" biomed1 - - - -
Sputnik 3
"Binokl-D"1
"Irtysh-D"1
"Tral-D"1 - - - -
Vostok 
"Binokl-D"1
"Rubin"2
"Irtysh-D"1
"Tral-P1"2 "Seliger-Tral-D"1
"Topaz"2
"Zarya"1 "Signal"1 "Peleng"1
1 = "Roads to Space"
2 = "Energia 1946-1996"
 


Voskhod

10.003 MHz Recovery beacon transmiter P-37. Antenna deployes after opening of parachute. "Peleng" in table above.
17.365 MHz AM voice
18.035 MHz AM voice (listen to R.S. Flagg's recording of Komarov's [Rubin] call to ground station Vjezna 2)
19.9944 MHz "Signal" simple biomedical telemetry beacon (Voskhod 1)
19.996 MHz "Signal" simple biomedical telemetry beacon (Voskhod 2)
143.625 MHz "Zarya" FM voice system


Early Soyuz (7K-OK)

15.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
18.035 MHz AM voice?
18.060 MHz AM voice?
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
922.75 MHz


Soyuz Ferry (7K-T)

18.060 MHz
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
166.0 MHz PPM-AM telemetry
922.75 MHz
925.24 MHz
926.06 MHz


Soyuz for ASTP (7K-TM)

18.060 MHz
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
142.417 MHz secondary FM voice downlink
192.0 MHz PCM/FM telemetry
296.8 MHz Apollo-compatible AM voice link.
463 MHz used for downlinking TV. A frequency-modulated link. The system was called Krechet, developed by VNII-30, A F Polushkin.
919.76 MHz
2870 MHz
2900 MHz


Soyuz S (7K-S)

20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
166.0 MHz PPM-AM telemetry


Soyuz T (7K-ST)

20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
166.0 MHz PCM/FM telemetry
922.75 MHz


Soyuz TM (7K-STM)

Transmit
121.75 MHz is the main FM voice downlink
166.0 MHz PCM/FM telemetry
922.75 MHz
926.05 MHz

Receive
130.167 MHz is the main FM voice uplink
768.96 MHz is the command uplink


Salyut 1

Downlinks

15.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
922.754 MHz


Salyut 2

See Salyut 3


Kosmos 557

Downlinks

15.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
922.75 MHz


Salyut 3

Downlinks

19.944 MHz FSK-PDM telemetry
143.625 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
180 MHz PPM-AM telemetry


Salyut 4

Downlinks

15.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
192 MHz PPM-AM telemetry
922.75 MHz
925.24 MHz
926.06 MHz


Salyut 5

Downlinks
19.944 MHz FSK-PDM telemetry
19.992 MHz FSK-PDM telemetry
143.625 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
180.0 MHz PPM-AM telemetry


Salyut 6

Downlinks
15.009 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
121.75 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
192.0 MHz PPM-AM telemetry
922.75 MHz
925.24 MHz
926.06 MHz
2802 MHz


Salyut 7

Downlinks
15.009 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
20.008 MHz CW-PDM telemetry
142.417 MHz was the main FM voice downlink
165 MHz PPM-AM telemetry (initially the frequency was 166.0 MHz)
192 MHz PPM-AM telemetry
922.75 MHz
925.3 MHz
926.07 MHz


Mir

Downlinks
 
Frequency 
(MHZ)
  Use


121.75  A back-up FM voice link
130.167 An FM voice link used during EVA. Also used to transmit TORU commands to Progress.
143.625 The main FM voice downlink
166.0 The PCM/FM telemetry channel (BR9-TsU system)
463 Used for downlinking TV. It is a frequency-modulated link
636.0 Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel (BITS TM system)
638.0 Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel (BITS TM system)
922.76 Contains telemetry and other signals on subcarriers. Russian name: KVANT. The primary use of the  system is for orbit determination and command verification.  It has the capability to provide TM and downlink voice but it is not used for that normally.
2860 The radar transponder return channel

 


Mir telemetry antenna for 630-640 MHz band

Uplinks
768.96 MHz is the command uplink
121.75 MHz can be used as a receive frequency also including receiving TORU signals from Progress
139.208 MHz used as a receive frequency during Shuttle dockings
2725 MHz is the radar transponder Rx frequency


Zarya - ISS Control Module (formerly known as FGB)

Transmit
130.167 MHz TORU transmit to Progress and to Orlan space suit.
632 MHz Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel on Soyuz. (BR-9TsU-8)
634 MHz Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel on Soyuz. (BR-9TsU-8)
2365-2375 MHz Command verification downlink of the Komparus system (According to Metrolog.ru web site)

Receive
121.125 MHz Voice from Orlan space suit.
121.75 MHz receive TORU signals from Progress and from Orlan space suit.
7190-7210 MHz Command link of the Komparus system (According Metrolog.ru web site)

See picture of two "comb" antennas on Zarya scale model.


Zvezda - ISS Service Module

Transmit
 
Frequency  (MHZ)   Use


121.75  A back-up FM voice link (3.5 W). TORU transmit to Zarya.
130.167 An FM voice link used during EVA(3.5 W) and in the VHF 2 mode. Also used to transmit TORU commands to Progress and to Orlan space suit..
143.625 The main FM voice downlink (3.5 W) (VHF 1)
463 Used for downlinking TV. It is a frequency-modulated link.(15 Watts). Deviation is 10 MHz.
628.0 Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel (BITS TM system, (BR-9TsU-8))
630.0 Used for PCM/FM telemetry very similar to the 166 MHz channel (BITS TM system, (BR-9TsU-8))
922-928 Contains telemetry and other signals on subcarriers. Russian name: REGUL. The primary use of the  system is for orbit determination and command verification.  It has the capability to provide TM and downlink voice but it is not used for that normally.
2860 The radar transponder return channel (210 W)

 

This extract from a NASA picture of the Zvezda rear end probably shiows the crossed dipole array of the REGUL radio system designed to work through a relay satellite.

Receive
 
Frequency (MHZ)  Use
121.125 Voice from Orlan space suit.
121.75 Alternate receive frequency (VHF 2). Also used to receive TORU signals from Progress and voice from Orlan space suit.
139.208 Used as a receive frequency from the ground (VHF 1).
130.167 Used to receive TORU signals from Zarya
231
Receive telemetry from Orlan space suit
247 Receive telemetry from Orlan space suit
420 TV receive
463 TV receive from Soyuz, Progress and ground.
768-774 The command uplink
2725 The radar transponder Rx frequency
3294 Kurs receive
3300 Kurs receive

[Sven's Space Place]

[Space Radio Notes]

Copyright 1996 Sven Grahn